Al Tamur Traders

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

HINDUSTAN ME FIQH KI AAMAD(ENTRY) AUR USKI ISHAA'AT:






Bismillahirrahmanirraheem




HINDUSTAN ME FIQH KI AAMAD(ENTRY) AUR USKI ISHAA'AT:



Shuru islam me soorat e haal ye thi ke sahaba kiram sab ke sab fuqaha na they, aur na un sabse deen ki maalumaat haasil ki ja sakti thi, balke deen ke khusoosi haamileen quraan they,

in haamileen ko " qurra" kaha jaata hai, yani wah log jo kitabullah ki qiraat ba'khoobi karte they, aur ye isliye ke arab aam taur par ummi(uneducated) they, aur unme se jo kitabullah ka qaari hota wah ubhar kar saamne aa jaata aur aise afraad ki kaamyabi ki bina par uski ye imtiyaazi khususiyat deen se ba'khoobi waaqif hone ko sajhaane ke taur par istemaal hoti thi...


Phir islami mulk ki wasat( increment) hoti gayi, aur arab se jihaalat ka khaatma hota gaya, log kitab ilaahi me mahaarat haasil karte gaye, aur islam ki taleem har jagah aam hone lagi yah tak ke fuqaha ne takmeel paakar ek mustaqal ilm wa fan ki shaqal wa soorat Akhtiyaai karli, toh phir " qurra" ka lafz " fuqaha" se badal gaya,

aur fiqah ki do shaakhen(branches) footi,

ek ko " ahle qiyas wa raaye" kahte they aur ye ahle iraaq they,

aur dusre ko " tareeqe e ahle hadith" se yaad karte they aur ye ahle hejaz they"

(tareekh afkaar wa uloom islami 20/40)


sabse pahle ahlul raaye ke peshwa imam abu hanifa rh they, hanafi mazhab ko aalam e islam me riwaaj dene waalon ki tadaad bahut zyada hai, jin me abu bakr ahmad bin umar al khsaaf, (matoofi 261 hijri), aur abu zafar ahmad bin tahawi (321 hijri), ziyaadah aham hain,

tahawi misr(egypt) me hanafiyyah ke peshwa they, inki kitaab " ma'aani aasaar" aur "masqal ul aasaar" hindustan me shaaya(publish) ho chuki hai....


Uske baad ke sar baraah imam malik rh they, imam malik ke mazhab ko egypt, maghrib, aur andulus(spain) me bahut se ulema ne phailaaya,

us daur me abul salaam bin saeed maroof (240 hijri) zyada Mashoor hue... Unki kitab aaj bhi un mumalik me maaliki mazhab ka buniyadi maakhaz bani hui hai..

Imam malik rh ke baad imam shafai rh ki shakhsiyat saamne aati hai, imam shafai rh ke mazhab ko nashr karne waale ulama hain, abu ibraaheem ismael bin yahya mazni (264 hijri) zyada aham hain, inki kitab " al mukhtasar" ko shafai ke yahan ziyadah qubuliyat haasil hai,

unke baad imam ahmad bin hambal rh aate hain, inke aham shargird me abu qasim kharqi(334) they, jinki kitab " mukhtasar fi fiqh) kaahira(cairo) me taba ho chuki hai

(tafseel ke liye mulaheza ho, mukhtasar tareek adab arbi jild 4)


FIQHI MAZHAB


yun to is duniya me bahut saare fuqaha paida hue aur inke fiqhi mazahab bhi wajood me aaye..

Magar ummat e muslima ne jin mazhab e fiqah ko qubool kiya aur jab ab tak aalam e islam me islam me maujood hai wah 4 hain,

har ek ki nisbat alag alag imam ki taraf hai, fiqah hanafi imam abu hanifa rh, Fiqah maliki ki nisbat imam malik bin anas rh ki taraf, fiqah shafai ki nisbat imam shafai rh ki tarah aur fiqah hambali ki nisbat imam ahmad bin hambal ki taraf hai..

Inke elaawa ulema ka ek aisa giroh aisa paida howa jis ne sire se qiyaas ka inkaar kiya aur par amal ko baatil thahraaya, ye log "firqa zahiriyah" ke naam se yaad kiye jaate hain, is mazhab ke imam dawood bin ali (270 hijri) aur unke ladke abu bakr (297 hijri) aur unke ladke ashaab they, lekin zaahirah ka fiqhi mazhab bahut jald duniya se mit gaya, na uske aimma baqi rahe aur na wah jamhoor ki nigah me pasandeedah thahra,

aasaar qadmiyah ki haisiyat se mahaz kitabon ki jildon me mahdood hokar rah gaya


uske elawa ahle sunnat ke tamaam fiqhi mazhab khatm ho gaye, maslan sufiyan soori rh ki jo fiqah ko koofa ki sarzameen me raij thi, aur imam hasan basri rh ki jo fiqah basrah me me thi,

isi tarah imam ozzai rh ki jo fiqah mulk shaam (syria) wa andalus(spain) wagerah me aur imam ibn zarir tabri rh aur abu soor ki jo baghdad me thi,

arz ke ye aur inke siwa jin fuqaha ke fiqhi mazhab jin shahron me raij they wah sab khatm ho gaye aur mazkoor 4 fiqhi mazhab hi baaqi rahe

aalam e islam ki mukhtalif jagahon me in 4 fiqhi mazhab mese kisi ek ki qubooliyat haasil hui hai, maslan iraaq, azar baijaan, afghanistan, persia aur hindustan ke aksar musalman log fiqah hanafi par amal karte hain,

fiqah maliki, andalus, sudaan, africa etc me raij hai,

raha imam shafai ka fiqhi mazhab to sabse pahle uski nashr egypt me hui, phir iraq me uska asar pahuncha, aur baghdaad, khurasan, turaan, shaam aur yemen ke elaaqon me use ghalba haasil huwa, phir persia, hejaz aur hindustan ke baaz elaaqon me bhi uske qadam pahunche,

fiqah hambali ne baghdad me nashr o ishaat paayi, phir dusre ilaaqon me pahuncha, lekin baaqi teeno fiqhi mazhab se kam shaaye (popular) huwa, sarre zameen najd me fiqah hambali par amal hota hai..



HINDUSTAN ME FIQAH KI AAMAD AUR USKI ISHAAT:



Tareekh ke mutaale se ye baat saaf hoti hai ke hindustan ki zameen par islam do raaston se aaya, sindh ke raaste they, aur iraan ke raaste se,

pahla lashkar muhammad bin qasim rh ki qiyadat me pahli sadi hijri ke aakhir me pahuncha, us waqt aimma arba me se imam abu hanifa rh ke siwa baqi aimma paida bhi nahi hue they,

imam abu hanifa rh ka ye daur taalib e ilmi ka tha, imamat ka to sawaal hi paida nahi hota !


Ye lashkar "al hadith" tha,


dusra hamla 4th sadi hijri me sultan mahmood ghaznawi ki qiyadat me iraan ke raaste se huwa, ye fateh amuman hanafi they, unhi ki wajah se hindustan me hanfiyat poore zor shor ke saath pahunchi

( tahreek ahle hadith page 43)


ghaznawion ke baad 595 hijri mutabik san 1198 me delhi ki zameen par sahabuddeen ghauri ka qabza huwa,

uski takht Nasheeni se hindustan me " daur e sultanate" ki shuruaat hoti hai,

zaahir si baat hai ke begair kisi qanoon ke koi bhi sultanate bahut dinon tak nahi chal sakti, san 1198 se lekar 1857 tak, jab angrezo ne aakhiri musalman baadshah bahadur shah zafar ko takht se be'dakhal kiya, hindustani hukumat , khwaah wa sultan ki rahi ho ya mughals ki rahi ho, islami shariat ko sarkaari qanoon ke taur par nafez kiye rahi,

iska nateeja ye nikla ke fiqah islami ka daur daurah agar ek taraf qaaziyon aur sheikh ul islam ki adaalaton me raha to dusri taraf usi ki goonj madaaris wa makatib aur jaami'aat me bhi sunaayi deti rahi hai...


Shumail magrib (north-west) ke raaste se aane waale musalman (west asia) ki taraf se aaye they jahan hanafi fiqah ki ziyaadati haasil thi,

is tarah hindustan ki taqriban har muslim riyaasat hanafi mazhab ki pairokaar thi,

qaziyon ke faisle amooman hanafi fiqah ke mutabik kiye jaate They, aur fiqah hanafi ki mustanad awwal kitabein qaaziyon ke saamne rahti thi, aur madarse me student bhi unhi ko padhte they...


Samundari ilaaqe ke qareeb maslan madras(chennai) maalebaar, aur konkan me chunke ahle yemen aur ahle hejaz ki aamad zyada thi, isliye in ilaaqon ke log aam taur par fiqah shafai par aamil they, aur aaj bhi wah isi par qayem hain

fiqah maliki aur fiqah hambali ka koi asar hindustan me nahi hain... Haan kuch log tijaarat ke maqsad se hindustan aaye.


Hindustan me jitne fuqaha guzre hain aur fiqah wa usool fiqah par unhone jo kuch kaam kiya hai , sirf uski sar sari fehrist(list) bhi taiyyar ki jaaye to hazaaron page bhi naakaafi honge,

baher haal is mauzu(topic) par jo tahqeeqaat saamne aayi hai unse maaloom hota hai ke shuru ki do, teen sadiyon me jab ke musalmanon ke qadam yahan poori tarah se raij bhi na they,

hindustan me taqriban 300 fuqaha us haisiyat se paida ho Chuke they, jinke naam tazkiron me mahfooz rah gaya hain, uske baad ki to koi ginti hi nahi hai,

jahan tak tasneefaat ka talluq hai to ye kaha ja sakta hai ke is maidaan me " fatawa taataar khataniyah" ko awwaliyat ka darja haasil hai.

Ye kitab bahut dino tak hukumat ke kiye ek rahnuma kitab ka kaam deti rahi,

infraadi tafneefaat se qata nazariyaat ke ahtamaam me fiqah ke jo majmue murattab hue un me aham tareen kitab jise " fatawa alamgiri" hai jise " fatawa hindiya" bhi kaha jaata hai,

hindustan ke fiqhi adab ke zakheere me " fatawa alamgiri" ko hamesha numaaya haisiyat haasil rahi hai, lekin jahan tak infraadi tasneefaat ka talluq hai to unke baare me yaqeen ke saath kaha ja sakta hai ke islami hind ki tareekh me koi sadi aisi nahi guzri hai jab fiqah ki kisi na kisi kitab par kaam na kiya gaya ho...

Muslim daur e hukumat me bahut saare aise musalman baadshah guzre hain jo khud to shahab qalam they , lekin wa ulema wa fuqaha ki is darja khidmat aur izzat karte they ke baaz log aqeedatan wa muhabbatan apni kitaabon ko unke naam se mansoob karne me khushi mahsoos karte they, is silsile me feroz shah tughlak ke naam se mansoob kitab " fawaid e feroz shahi" ka naam pesh kiya ja sakta hai,

jo dar'haqiqat uske darbaar ke ek aalim ki kitab hai, jisme unhone zabaan farsi me fiqah hanafi ke fatawe ko jama kiya hai

jab adaalaton ke elawa madaaris me bhi fiqah ka bol bala huwa to madarson me bhi fiqah par kitabein likhi gayi, wah aam taur se students ki zaruraton ko poora karti thi,

yah kitabein amuman pahli kitabon ki sharah hoti thi,

misaal ke taur par ham sirf do mashoor hanafi fiqah ki kitabon ka zikr karte hain, ek hidaya hai jis par taqriban 15 hindustani ulema ne apne haashiye chadhaaye hain, aur dusri kitab "sharah wiqaya" hai jis ko 18 ulema ne apne keemti haashiya chadhaaye hain.

Fiqah ke elawa Usool fiqah par mukhtalif kitaben likhi gayi, jin me se qaazi shahabuddeen jaunpuri ki kitab "sharah bazdawi" aur allama muhibullah bihaari ki "musallam al saboot" khususiyat ke saath qaabil e zikr hain


(tafseel ke liye padhen ; hindustan me uloom islamiyah page 60,61,62)

is sar sari jayeza se kam se kam itna zaroor malum hota hai ke hindustan me fiqah ki aamad aur phir uski ishaa'at kaise hui ......