Al Tamur Traders

Sunday, November 13, 2011

HADITH KI DEFITNITIONS AUR UNKI MUKHTALIK SHAKLEN







Bismillahirrahmanirraheem



HADITH KI DEFITNITIONS AUR UNKI MUKHTALIK SHAKLEN


HADITH : nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam ke farmaan, kaam ya kisi kaam par aapki khamoshi ko hadith kahte hain,

inko ikattha(collect) karne me muslim alimon ne jo misaal pesh ki uska namoona kisi dharm(religion) me nahi milta, yahan tak ki iske liye unko ek naye science ki khoj karni padi jisko arabic me " jirrah-tadeel" kahte hai, aur iske liye definitions bhi banani padi jo isse pahle nahi thi, isliye unki tashrih zaroori hai...


SAHIH : Sahih hadith ke liye in sharton ka hona laazmi hai

1- iske bayan karne waale "aadil" yani uska charactor bharose ke qaabil ho

2- unka dimaagi taqat ho, ya phir jo kah rahe ho wah likha huwa hon

3- uski sanad mutassil ho, yani har raawi (bayan karne waala) ne wah hadith apne ustaad se khud suni ho

4- usme koi 'shaaz' baat na batayi gayi ho

5- usme kisi ki tarah ki koi 'illat' na Paayi jaati ho


HASAN : yah wah hadith hai jisme sahih hadith ki saari shartein paayi jaati ho, sirf raawi ki dimagi taqat kuch kamzor ho, lekin itni bhi na ho ki wah " zaeff" ban jaaye


DHAEEF : yah wah hadith hai jisme sahih hadith ke kuch masle na paaye jaate hon


DHAEEF ZIDDAN : jiski sanad ka koi raawi bahut zyada kamzor ho lekin jhoota naa ho


MAWDOO : yah haqeeqat me hadith hai hi nahi, kyonki yah hadith ki wah kism hai jisko kisi raawi ne apni taraf se gadkar nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam ki taraf mansoob kar diya, lekin ' mawdoo' ko parakhne ke liye bahut zyada koshih karna pada, isliye muhaddiseeno ne iske mutallik bahut si kitaaben likhi aur jahan jahan mawdoo hadithsen aayi unko wajeh kar diya, taaki islam me koi apni taraf se kuch daakhil na kar sake, isliye ye hadithen hadith ki kitaabon me to daakhil ho gayi, lekin muhaddiseeno ne isko waajeh kar diya


MUTAWATIR : yah hadith ki wah Wah qism hai jisko bayan karne waale itne zyada hon ki unka jhoot bolna namumkin ho jaaye, mutawatir hadith ke liye do sharton ka paaya jaana zaroori hai

1- iske bayan karnewaale sanad ke har part me itne paayen jaayen ki inka kisi jhoot par sahmat ho jaana na mumkin ho jaaye

2- mutawatir hadith ka 5 masleh(jo sahih hadith ka hai) me se kisi ek ke jimme jaanna zaroori hai


ILLAT :hadithon par research karte waqt jo sanad aur matan me kamiyan paayi jaati hain unko ' illat' kahte hain, jiski wajah se hadith daeef ho jaati hai, kamiyon ke mutabik hadith me illat ghat'ti badhti rahti hai, kabhi kamiyan khatm bhi ho jaati hai, aur kabhi nahi bhi hoti, isko parakhne ke liye bahut zyada hadith ki science(zirrah wa tadeel) ki zarurat padhti hai, illat parakhne waale mashoor muhaddithon me imam bukhari rh, imam daar e kutni rh, imam baihaqi khaas hain.


MAHFOOZ : yah sahih hadith ki qism hai, yah wah hadith Hai jo kisi kam aadil raawi ke khilaaf zyada aadil raawi ke zariye bayan ki jaati hai, zyada adl waale raawi ki hadith ko mahfooz kahte hain aur is tarah ki hadith ke mutabik amal karna zaroori hai


SHAAZ : wah hadith jo kisi zyada aadil raawi ke khilaaf, kisi kam adl waale raawi ke zariye bayan ki gayi ho shaaz kahlaati hai, is par amal karna zaroori nahi


MAA'RUF : yah bhi sahih hadith ki qism hai jiska raawi aadil hota hai lekin koi 'dhaeef' raawi uske mukhaalif hadith bayan kare to aadil raawi ki hadith 'maaruf' kahlaayegi, jisko apnaana zaroori hai, aur ' dhaeef' raawi ki hadith munkar kahlaayi us amal karna haraam hai


MUNKAR :yah daeef hadith ki wah qism hai jiska raawi 'daeef' bhi ho aur kisi aadil raawi ke khilaaf me hadith bayaan kare


MAR'FU : yah wah hadith hai jisko nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam se mansoob kiya jaaye, yah sahih bhi ho sakti hai aur daeef bhi, agar uski sanad ya matan Me koi illat nahi hai to sahih hogi, aur agar koi illat paayi gayi to daeef hogi


MUNQA'TA : yah hadith ki wah qism hai jiski sanad me koi raawi aisa mil jaaye jisne apne ustad se hadith na suni ho, to usko muntaqa kahte hain, yani matlab yah hai ki sanad beech se kat gayi hai, munqata hadith bhi zaeef hadith ki qism mese hai, kyonki hadith ke sahih hone ke liye zaroori hai ki wah mutassil ho yani kahin se kati na ho


MAUQOOF : yah haqeeqat me hadith nahi hai, lekin hadith ki kitaabon me paayi jaati hai 'mauqoof' ka maana hai rok dena, yani nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam se mansoob karne se rok kar kisi sahabi se mansoob ki jaati hai, isliye mauqoof hadith daeef hadithon ki qismo me to aati hai lekin wah hadith nahi hai


MATAN : matan se muraad wah hadith hai jo sanad ke baad bayan ki jaati hai, kuch kitaaben hadith ki aisi hain jinme sirf matan hota hai, lekin ye kitaben hadith ki asal kitaben Nahi hain, balki logon ki sahooliyat ke liye asal se likhi gayi hai, jaise ' mishqaat'


SANAD : hadith ki kitabon me matan bayan karne se pahle riwayat karne waalon ke silsile ko sanad kahte hai, yah tareeqa(science) kisi aur dharm me nahi paaya jaata


JAAMI : hadith ki us kitab ko kahte hain jisme ahkaam ke saath saath, imaan, fitan, tafsir etc bayan ki jaaye : jaami sahih bukhari, jaami sahi muslim


SUNAN : hadith ki wah kitab jo ahkaam aur deen ke huqm ke base par likhi gayi ho, jaise sunan abu dawood, sunan nisai, sunan tirmizi, sunan ibne maaja etc.


MUSNAD : us kitab ko kahte hain jo sahaba ke base par likhi gayi ho, jaise ' musnad ahmad'


TABIEE : jo kisi sahabi se mila ho aur usse hadithon ka ilm haasil kiya ho use taabi kahte hain.


MURSAL : wah hadith jisko taabi bayan karen aur allah ke rasool nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam se mansoob karen, jabki wah nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam se milaa hi na ho jaise ' hz hasan basri rh ' agar kahen ki nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam ne farmaya:-"........" is tarag ki hadith ko mursal kaha jaayega, kyonki hasan basri rh taabi hain aur hadith bayaan karne me kisi sahabi ka zikr nahi hai jabki hadith ko un tak pahunchaane me koi na koi sahabi zaroor honge


SHEIKH-UL-ISLAM : yah hadithon ke aalimon ki wah laqab hai jo bahut kam logon ko mili hai kyonki yah un logon ke liye istemal ki jaati hai, jo hadith, fiqah, etc me bahut aage nikal gaye hon jaise ibne taimiyya


HAAKIM : yah hadith ke aalimon ka laqab hai ,jo hadithon ko yaad karne ke saath saath sanad ka bhi aalim ho, aur uska ilm bahut faila huwa ho


HAAFIZ : hadith ke we aalim jo hadithen yaad kar liya karte they unko haafiz kahte hain



BY : PROF. MUHAMMAD ZIA'URRAHMAN AAZMI (MADEENA MUNAWWARA)