Al Tamur Traders

Saturday, October 20, 2012

NAJD AUR NAJDIYAT KA JAAYEZA : (PART - 2)







Bismillahirrahmanirraheem



NAJD AUR NAJDIYAT KA JAAYEZA : (PART - 2)



Aaiyye pahle " najd " ke maana wa mafhoom samjh len taake ye baat waazeh ho jaaye ke lughate arab me " najd " kise kahte hain ??

Iske baad is baat ka jaayeza lenge ki sar e zameen arab me " najd " naam ke kitne ilaaqe aur maqaam hain aur wah kahan kahan waaqe hain ?


Arabic lughat ke mutaabit " najd " ke maana bulandi aur raf'at ke hote hain, goya har buland aur oonchi cheez ko " najd " kaha jaata hai,

ilm geography ki is'talaah me zameen ka " pahaadi elaaqa " ko arabi zabaan me " najd " kahte hain, iske elawa nasheebi elawa " ghaur " kahlaata hai,


arabic zabaan ki mashoor wa maroof lughat " al kamoos al muheet ) me allama  firozabadi " najd " ki tashreeh in alfaazon me karte hain

" najd us khitta zameen ko kahte hain jo waazeh taur par bulandi par waaqe ho (hejaz me ) isse muraad wah ilaaqa hai jo (ghaur ) yani thaama ke Bil'muqaabil hai, iski bulandi " thama " aur " yemen " se shuru hoti hai, aur dhalaan iraaq ki sar'zameen tak pahla hua hai, hejaz ki simt se najd ke elaaqe ke ibtedan (zaat iraq ) maqaam se hoti hai "

(kamoos jild 1 pg 302)


waazeh rahe ke " zaat iraq " ahle iraq ki " meeqaat " hai, jahan se wah hajj wa umrah ka ahraam bandhte hain,

arabic zubaan ki maroof lughat " lisan ul arab " me ibn satoor afreeqi " najd " ke maana aur uski tashreeh is tarah karte hain,


" najd zameen ka wah hissa kahlaata hai, jo buland wa baala, mazboot shakht ya pathareela ho aur unchaai par waaqe ho, hamwaar ho "

( lisan ul arab jild 14 pg 45 taba beirut 1955)

phir wah geography ke aitbar se hejaz arab me uska sahih maqam in alfaaz me mutayyan karte hain,

" zameen ka wah buland wa balaai hissa jo ' thama ' ke maqam se shuru hokar iraaq ki sar'zamedn tak phaila hua hai wah " najd " kahlaata hai"

( lisanul arab)


najd  Ki mazkoorah bila'tareef wa tashreef ko zehan me rakhte hue jab ham sar zameen arab ke geographiya ka jayeza lete hain toh hamen mukhtalif maqaamat par kai satah pahadi aur buland ilaaqe milte hain, jin par arabi zabaan me lafz " najd " ka ittelaaq hota hai,


arab ke mashoor muwarrikh aur geographiya'daan sheikh abu abdullah yaqoot hamwi(rh) ne apni kitab " mu'ajjam baldaan " me najd ke naam ke kam se kam 10 maqaamaat ka zikr kiya hai,

jaise

1- najd e khaal

2- najd e kabkab,

3- najd e uqaab,

4- najd ul ashra

5- najd d mari'e

6- najd e aqar,

7- najd e yemen

8- najd e aaja'a

9- najd e aa'loz

10- najd e barq,

sayyid murtaza zubaidi bagraami ki " taaj ul urus " jild 2 me mazkoorah namon ke elewa " najd e iraaq " ka naam bhi milta hai,

( taaj ul urus sayyid murtaza zubaidi taba beirut )

mazkoorah baala " maqaamat najd " mese najd uqaab , najd kabkab, najd khaal, najd ashra, najd aa'loz, najd  Barq, ka khaas taalluq sar zameen IRAQ se raha hai, aur sirf najd e yemen ka ilaaqa jo maghrib me makka mukarrama ke paas " tahama" aur junoob ki simt " yemen " se mutsal waadi uyayna se shuru hokar khaleej faaras (persian gulf ) ke junoobi maghribi kinaane " waadi sah'ba " ko qata'a karta hua " saila " ke maqaam tak pahla hua hai,

najd yemen ka ye saara ilaaqa aaj kal mamlakut saudi arabia ka ek sooba hai jo sooba najd kahlaata hai,

is soobe ka sadar maqaam (capital) riyadh hai, jo fil'waqt saudi arabia ka daarul sultanate bhi hai,


agar aap saudi arab ka naqsha (map) par nigaah daalein toh aapko junoob (south) ki taraf me hazar'maut ke saahil se mutsal " ahqaaf " ka wah mashoor ilaaqa nazar aayega jo kabhi qaum e aad ka maskan aur hz hud (as) ki dawat e islam ka marqaz raha hai,

aaj kal ye ilaaqe " sultanate e oman " me shamil hai, uska mahal e waqu yemen ke shahron khususan qadeem tareen shaher " Sana " ke bil 'muqaabil hai, " waadi ahqaaf " se mutsal shimaal ki simt me saudi arab ka sabse bada registan (desert) " raba al khaali " ya " sahra al dahna " hai,

isi sahra ya registan ke maghribi kone se mili hui mulk e yemen ke pahaadon ki ek wadi hai jo " wadi haboona " kahlaati hai, us waadi ke paas ek pahaadi ilaaqa shuru hota hai jo " jabal e to'eq " aur jabal e hejaz ki dhahlaanon par pahla hua hai, aur makka muqarrama ki simat jaakar " waadi al ramah " par khatam ho jaata hai,

zamana qadeem se  ye elaqa " martaf'aat e najd " ka najd e yemen kahlaata hai,

makka mukarrama agarchah sar zameen e hejaz se mutallik shaher hai, magar geographiyai aitbaar se chunke wah " najd e yemen " ke theek maghrib ki jaanib jabal e hejaaz ke daaman me waaqe hai, isliye wah bhi saudi arab ya qadeem hejaz ka shaher hone ke ba'wajood " muntaqa yemen " me hi shumar hota hai,

waazeh rahe ke madeena munawwara se Theek mashriq ki simat me taqreeban 1800 km ke faasle par samundar ki ek chaudi se khaadi waaqe hai jo khaleej faaras (persian gulf ) ke naam se mashoor hai, tamam khaleeji arab mumalik jaise, kuwait, bahrain, qatar, abu dhabi, dubai, sharjah, wagerah isi " khaleej faaras " ke junoob se shumal tak uske magribi kinaare ya saahil par aabaad hain,

is khaleez ka mashraqi kinaarah hukumat iraan ke qabze me hai,

maujoodah geograaghai soorat haal ye hai ke " khaleej faaras " ke junoobi saahil par abu dhabi, sharjah ki khaleeji riyasatein aabaad hain, aur maghribi kinaare par un riyasaton ke qareeb hi qatar. Aur bahrain ke arab mulk base hain,

khaleej faaras ki isi maghribi saahili patti par saudi arab ke kai shaher bhi base hue milte hai jaise qateef, akhsa, hafoof, aur ajmaan wagerah is tarah ye maghribi saahili patti saudi arab ki " waadi saha'ba " se shimaali simt chalte hue " muntaqah muhaidah " ke paas Tak hukumat saudiyah ki milkiyat hai, aur uske baad usi patti ki shimali nok ya sire par quwait ki mamlakut waaqe hai,


6th sadi eeswi yani " daur e risaalat " me khaleej faaras ke is khitte ki geograaphai haalat ye nahi thi, balke us waqt chunke us khitta par do azeem sultanate " IRAN AUR ROME " maujood thin, jinka raqba be'had wasi tha, aur arab duniya ke maujoodah bahut se mulk un huqumaton ka hissa aur unke zer e intezaam they, us daur me " iraq " ka bada ilaaqa iraani sultanate me shamil tha, aur uska kuch hissa roomi hukumat ke qabze me tha,

chunanche khaleej faaras ka wah tamam ilaaqa jo  maghribi saahil par aabaad aur ab saudi hukumat ka hissa hai, daur e risaalat me ye saara elaaqa iraan ke soobah " iraaq " me shamil tha, aur mutadid arab qabail jaise banu laham, hawazin, banu tamim, banu bakr , banu taiy, aur banu hanifa wagerah isi ilaaqe ke aas paas base hue they,

(munajid arabi pg 345 Jazeeratul arab qadeem taba beirut )


baherhaal ! Najd e yemen ko chhod kar baaqi maqaamat najd jin ka zikr " yaqoot hamwi " ne apni kitab me kiya hai, madeena munawwarah se mashriq ki jaanib maqaam " zaat e arq " se shuru hokar iraaq ki sarhadon se ghuzarte hue mulk e iraq me door tak pahadon ke daaman me phaile hue they, aur unki kasrat e tadad ki bina par  jaaye waqu ki munasibat se maazi me " najd " aur " iraq " ek dusre ke mutraadaf aur pahchaane bane they,

daur e risaalat me aawaami bol chal me lafz e najd ka mafhoom khitta iraaq hi howa karta tha, kyonke wahin par pahaadon ki satah martafa ya " pahadi ilaaqe" kasrat se they aur arabon ko apne tijaarati safaron me unse waasta padta rahta tha,


Najd aur maqaamat e najd ki wazaahat aur unke mahal e waqu ka jaayeza lene ke baad ab ham un hadithon ka jaayeza lenge jin me " najd" ki muzammat aur usse uthne waale fitno ki pesangoyi nabi e akram Sallalaho alaihi wasallam (pbuh) ne farmayi hai,


TO BE CONTINUED.......